SCIENTIFIC STUDIES AND ULTRASOUND IMAGES
Carotid intima-media thickness as a marker for coronary heart disease risk
Ultrasound imaging of the carotid arteries in the neck is an important tool to help prevent stroke. Scientific studies have demonstrated that measuring the carotid artery wall thickness and detecting the presence of plaque can also help to determine a patient's risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
"B-mode ultrasound-based carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement and carotid plaque detection is one of the surrogate markers of atherosclerosis that has shown value in CHD risk prediction. It has been shown that adding either CIMT, plaque, or both to traditional risk prediction models improves CHD risk prediction. Carotid ultrasound-based CIMT measurement and plaque identification is noninvasive, safe, and relatively inexpensive. Recent guidelines have given CIMT and plaque-based risk prediction a class II A recommendation."
Abdominal ultrasound testing reduces aortic aneurysm mortality
The aorta is the largest and most important blood vessel in the body, supplying blood from the heart to the legs and organs. Aortic aneurysm (enlargement) is a life threatening condition that can be detected using a simple ultrasound scan.
"Screening of men aged 65 years and over has been shown to reduce aneurysm related mortality... In addition to the risk of aneurysm expansion and rupture, patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality... Ultrasound is a relatively cheap, non-invasive, widely available and reliable tool for detecting and measuring AAAs. It is the modality of choice for screening and surveillance."
- Scott RA, Wilson NM, Ashton HA, Kay DN. Influence of screening on the incidence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: 5-year results of a randomized controlled study. Br J Surg 1995;82:1066–70.
- Lindholt JS, Juul S, Fasting H, Henneberg EW. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: single centre randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2005;330:750.
- Norman PE, Jamrozik K, Lawrence-Brown MM, et al. Population based randomised controlled trial on impact of screening on mortality from abdominal aortic aneurysm. BMJ 2004;329:1259.
- Ashton HA, Buxton MJ, Day NE, et al. The Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) into the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening on mortality in men: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:1531–9.
- Thompson SG, Ashton HA, Gao L, Buxton MJ, Scott RA; Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) Group. Final follow-up of the Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) randomized trial of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening. Br J Surg 2012;99:1649–56.
- Bengtsson H, Bergqvist D. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: a population-based study. J Vasc Surg 1993;18:74–80.
- Shimizu, K. (2006). Inflammation and Cellular Immune Responses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, And Vascular Biology, 26(5), 987-994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.atv.0000214999.12921.4f
Lower limb ultrasound to detect Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
Peripheral arterial disease is a condition that reduces a patient's mobility and overall quality of life. Research has shown that people with arterial disease of the legs are also more likely to get heart disease or stroke. An ultrasound scan of the leg arteries will identify the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease.
"Systemic atherosclerosis is a condition which progresses with age, decreases quality of life and life expectancy. Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis in the elderly. These individuals have a 2 to 4 fold higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, systemic atherosclerosis causes overall functional disability including restricted lower extremity movements...Doppler ultrasonography (US) is an easily available and noninvasive means of arterial visualization in the lower extremities."
"As a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) signifies an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Peripheral arterial disease has received less attention than other atherosclerotic diseases, leading to under-diagnosis and under-treatment. Peripheral arterial disease affects approximately 10–15% of the general population, and approximately 50% of PAD patients are asymptomatic. Screening for asymptomatic PAD among high risk groups has been recommended by major PAD authorities to increase early diagnosis. Screening for PAD using the ankle-brachial index can detect asymptomatic patients."
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Haigh, K., Bingley, J., Golledge, J., & Walker, P. (2013). Peripheral arterial disease screening in general practice. Australian Family Physician, 42(6), 391-395. Retrieved from http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/june/peripheral-arterial-disease-screening/
Inaba, Y., Chen, J., & Bergmann, S. (2012). Carotid plaque, compared with carotid intima-media thickness, more accurately predicts coronary artery disease events: A meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis, 220(1), 128-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.06.044
Kölliker Frers, R., Bisoendial, R., Montoya, S., Kerzkerg, E., Castilla, R., & Tak, P. et al. (2015). Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk: Immune-mediated crosstalk between metabolic, vascular and autoimmune inflammation. IJC Metabolic & Endocrine, 6, 43-54.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcme.2015.01.005
Negi, S., & Nambi, V. (2012). The Role of Carotid Intimal Thickness and Plaque Imaging in Risk Stratification for Coronary Heart Disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep, 14(2), 115-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-012-0225-4
Robinson, D., Mees, B., Verhagen, H., & Chuen, J. (2013). Aortic aneurysms: Screening, surveillance and referral. Australian Family Physician, 42(6). http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/june/aortic-aneurysms/
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Shrivastava, A., Singh, H., Raizada, A., & Singh, S. (2015). C-reactive protein, inflammation and coronary heart disease. The Egyptian Heart Journal, 67(2), 89-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2014.11.005
Thompson SG, Ashton HA, Gao L, Buxton MJ, Scott RA; Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) Group. Final follow-up of the Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) randomized trial of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening. Br J Surg 2012;99:1649–56.
Verim S, Tasci I. (2013). Doppler ultrasonography in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Arch Tur Soc Cardiol, 41(3), 248-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.5543/tkda.2013.76429